Genomic binding of Pol III transcription machinery and relationship with TFIIS transcription factor distribution in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Nucleic Acids Res, 40(1):270-83.
RNA polymerase (Pol) III synthesizes the tRNAs, the 5S ribosomal RNA and a smallnumber of untranslated RNAs. In vitro, it also transcribes short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). We investigated the distribution of Pol III and its associated transcription factors on the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells using a highly specific tandem ChIP-Seq method. Only a subset of the annotated class III genes was bound and thus transcribed. A few hundred SINEs were associated with the Pol III transcription machinery. We observed that Pol III and its transcription factors were present at 30 unannotated sites on the mouse genome, only one of which was conserved in human. An RNA was associated with >80% of these regions. More than 2200 regions bound by TFIIIC transcription factor were devoid of Pol III. These sites were associated with cohesins and often located close to CTCF-binding sites, suggesting that TFIIIC might cooperate withthese factors to organize the chromatin. We also investigated the genome-wide distribution of the ubiquitous TFIIS variant, TCEA1. We found that, as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TFIIS is associated with class III genes and also withSINEs suggesting that TFIIS is a Pol III transcription factor in mammals.