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Thesis: Gilles STORELLI

When Nov 23, 2015
from 02:00 PM to 05:00 PM

On Monday 23th of November at 14:00 pm in Salle des Thèses Chantal Rabourdin-Combe (ENS, Monod campus) Gilles STORELLI from François LEULIER team (Functional Genomics of Host / Intestinal Bacteria Interactions) will defend his thesis entitled:

 

"Caractérisation de l'interaction mutualiste liant Drosophila melanogaster à son symbionte Lactobacillus plantarum"

 

Abstract:

Symbiotic bacterial populations (also called the “microbiota”) have a dramatic impact on their host’s physiology. However, our understanding of the mechanisms shaping host/microbes mutualism remains limited. We took advantage of Drosophila tractability to characterize the host’s and the microbial factors engaged in mutualism. During my PhD, I focused on the impact of the microbiota during the Drosophila larval phase, which constitutes its juvenile growth period. Drosophila larval phase is influenced by nutrition, but also by symbiotic microbes:  specific association with the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum buffers the deleterious effects of nutrient scarcity on the host’s juvenile growth, by sustaining greater growth rates and hastening maturation. L.plantarum mediate these effects by modulating the activity of the steroid hormone Ecdysone and the Insulin/Insulin-like Signaling pathway in its host. In return, L.plantarum benefits from Drosophila presence, as larvae ensure its long-term persistence in the niche (the niche being the nutritive substrate, the larvae and the asscoiated bacteria). To characterize the mechanisms engaged in this mutualistic relationship, we described the host’s transcriptomic and metabolic responses to L.plantarum presence and characterized the metabolic perturbations occurring in the niche. Our results put forward the optimization of amino-acids extraction from the nutritive substrate as a cornerstone of mutualism. L.plantarum activates the expression of the host’s digestive proteases via IMD/NF-κB signaling and would benefit in return from an enhanced AA availability, which would help sustaining its long-term persistence. Altogether, our studies contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms regulating host/microbiota interaction and could lead to numerous therapeutic applications, notably aiming at counteracting the deleterious effects of nutritional imbalances.